Nephrology is a medical specialty which deals with the assessment and management of kidney disorders. The kidneys are bean-shaped organs present in the abdominal cavity responsible for filtering blood of waste products and eliminating them in the form of urine. The kidneys also produce hormones that aid in the regulation of blood pressure, acid, mineral and water levels. Kidney disorders may occur due to infection, dehydration, clotting disorders, immune system disorders and complications of pregnancy. Some common disorders treated by a nephrologist include acute high blood pressure, kidney stones, renal failure, polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD).